Albert Einstein, physicist and mathematician was born in Germany in 1879. He is the man who changed the way we look at the world
During his childhood, Einstein did not display any special abilities and he even dropped out of school. In 1905, without any collaboration with the academic community, he published a series of original articles that led to a major breakthrough in physics. One article put forth a molecular explanation for Brownian motion. Another proposed what would be later referred to as "The Theory of Relativity". In a different article, he negated the accepted wave theory of light. For this work, he won the Nobel Prize in 1921. In 1905, he published the famous equation E=mc² which bound energy to mass, providing the basic understanding of radioactivity.
With Hitler's rise to power, Einstein left Germany for the United States, and in 1933, was appointed as Professor of Mathematics in the Graduate Program at Princeton University.
2005 marks the 100th anniversary year of Einstein's Theory of Relativity and his Annus Mirabilis - his Year of Miracles - and the 50th anniversary year of his death. This "Einstein Year" is being celebrated as the Year of Physics, with the endorsement of the United Nations. Einstein was close in heart with Israel. In 1952, he was invited to become the second President of the State of Israel and before his death in 1955, he left his scientific papers and his rights to the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, which he himself had helped to establish. Israel is proud to issue a Commemorative Coin as a tribute to Albert Einstein, with the authority of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
A series of concentric circles form the portrait of Einstein and express Einstein's World of Physics, his time and space, and mass and energy theories. To fully appreciate the design, the coin should be held further back than usual. When moved from side to side, the coin catches light at different angles. The movement of light created symbolizes the nature and velocity of light that played such a central role in Einstein's contributions in 1905, specifically, his work on the Photoelectric Effect and his Special Theory of Relativity.
The reverse displays elliptic orbits of the planets around the sun, signifying the renewed study of planetary motion and of the universe to which Einstein's General Theory of Relativity contributed so significantly.
A series of concentric circles forming a portrait of Einstein. The equation "E = mc²", below. The inscription, "The Theory of Relativity, 1905-2005" in Hebrew, English and Arabic.
The orbits of the planets around the sun with the denomination, "1, 2 or 10". The year of issue "5765/2005" and the word "Israel" in Hebrew, English and Arabic. The inscription, "Einstein's Year 2005" in Hebrew and English. The State Emblem at the top. "New Sheqel" or "New Sheqalim" at the rim. The Proof coins mintmarked with a Hebrew 'mem' below the denomination. The Proof-like coins with a six pointed 'Star of David'.
NIS - New Israel Sheqalim
Proof-Like: A Mint State coin struck on a standard quality planchet. The coin displays a mirror type finish, but of lesser degree than a full Proof strike. A small six pointed "Star of David" mintmark struck on the "Einstein" coin below the denomination.
Proof: A coin which was made with special care. The coins are struck using polished dies. The planchets are specially selected and polished. The coins exhibit a mirror-like surface in the fields and a frosted appearance on the raised points of the coin. A small Hebrew 'mem' mintmark is struck on the "Einstein" coin below the denomination.
ASW: actual silver weight